Hire The Top 1% Freelance Software Developers

Flexiple is a network of top Software developers, engineers, and architects with hourly rates ranging from $30 to $100. Join 100+ teams who have hired Software developers from Flexiple for a few weeks to a few years!
IULIA TICA

IULIA TICA

Senior Software Developer

PREVIOUSLY AT

Evozon
BEYNI HAMZA

BEYNI HAMZA

Senior Software Developer

PREVIOUSLY AT

Sofrecom
VINEETHA VENUGOPAL

VINEETHA VENUGOPAL

Software Developer

PREVIOUSLY AT

Samsung
VASILE CATANA

VASILE CATANA

Software Developer

PREVIOUSLY AT

Continental
TAKSHAY PATEL

TAKSHAY PATEL

Senior Software Developer

PREVIOUSLY AT

Cybage

Flexiple spent good amount of time understanding our requirements, resulting in accurate recommendations and quick ramp up by quality developers.

Narayan Vyas, Senior PM (YC S12)

Overall Flexiple brought in high-level of transparency with quick turnarounds in the hiring process at a significantly lower cost than any alternate options.

Esther Hersh, Co-founder ('17 NYU Grad)

Flexiple has been instrumental in helping us grow at a fast pace. Their vetting process for engineers is top notch and they connected us with quality talent quickly.

Tanu V, Founder (#1 Salesforce Leads App)

Work With Flexiple's Expert Software Developers!

Be a short-term or a long-term project, don't compromise on the quality of talent you work with. Flexiple handpicks only the Top 1% through a 6-stage screening process.
  • JEFF LEI
    JEFF LEI
    Python Java React

    Jeff is a software engineer having around 8 years of experience and specializes in web application development. He is proficient in Python, Django, Node, and ... also at frontend technologies like Javascript, Typescript, React, Vue, GraphQL. He also has some experience in devops such as Jenkins, Travis Build and Docker. Read more

    Previously at phData

    Hire Jeff
  • BEYNI HAMZA
    BEYNI HAMZA
    Java AngularJS AWS

    Beyni is a full stack developer with 6 years of experience in the software sphere. He has developed a variety of applications for industries like ... HR, parking management, telecom, etc. He has the combined experience of working with both product and service-based companies. He is adept in technologies like Java, Angular, AWS, etc. He is good at communicating with clients and has worked as an individual contributor and as a team lead as well. Read more

    Previously at Sofrecom

    Hire Beyni
  • KOMAL AHLUWALIA
    KOMAL AHLUWALIA
    React Python Java

    Komal is a software developer with 5+ years of experience in developing scalable and concurrent business applications in ReactJS, NodeJS, AngularJS and Java. Further, being ... exposed to the agile methodology gives her the ability to adapt to new technologies, learn, master and coach. Read more

    Previously at Thoughtworks

    Hire Komal
  • VINEETHA VENUGOPAL
    VINEETHA VENUGOPAL
    Java Android .NET

    Vineetha is an NIT Jaipur (top-tier engineering college in India) alumni having 6+ years of experience in software development with the likes of Samsung R&D, ... Shop101 & Infosys. She specializes in highly scalable, real-time Android applications with experience in Java, C# & database technologies. Read more

    Previously at Samsung

    Hire Vineetha
  • VASILE CATANA
    VASILE CATANA
    Java Python

    Vasile is a young, talented, enthusiastic software engineer with solid experience and a versatile skill set. He is proficient with multiple languages and frameworks such ... as Python, Java, C++, Docker, and many more. He is a creative professional who has good communication skills. With a strong work ethic, Vasile is focused on helping you reach your goal. Read more

    Previously at Continental

    Hire Vasile
  • GRAYDEN SMITH
    GRAYDEN SMITH
    .NET MySQL DevOps

    Grayden Smith has 9+ years in software development and system administration, including 5+ years of team leadership experience. He is an Experienced designer of software ... applications from the initial concept to production use in collaboration with stakeholders. His personal interests include community service and soccer. Read more

    Previously at Paradem Consulting

    Hire Grayden
  • KASHISH GOYAL
    KASHISH GOYAL
    Python C++. AngularJS

    Kashish, a brilliant developer, is a Robotics graduate from Northwestern University. With an experience of over 5+ years, his work across top companies like Siemens ... and Kindred prove his caliber. He is an adaptable developer with his skillset ranging in Python, AngularJS, C++, Docker, Flask, HTML/CSS, PWA, ReactJS. Read more

    Previously at Siemens

    Hire Kashish
  • TAKSHAY PATEL
    TAKSHAY PATEL
    AngularJS Java Spring

    A senior developer with 11 years of experience, Takshay has worked across prominent companies like Capgemini. He has developed several web applications using technologies like ... Java, AngularJS, AWS, etc. as a lead developer and an individual contributor. A lucid communicator, he proves to be a seamless fit in every team. Read more

    Previously at Cybage

    Hire Takshay

Flexiple Helps You Hire Quality Developers, Handpicked for You

  • Work only with the best

    Our developers are selected through a 6-stage screening process. As a result, our developers have an average of 5-years industry experience and are ready to immediately contribute on projects.
  • Work with Role-specific Developers

    Save time and energy lost in manually sifting through profiles. Our solutions expert along with our Director of Technology will handpick developers who are a perfect match for your requirement.
  • Work Risk-free & Start within 2 Days

    With immense confidence in the quality of our developers and the accuracy of our recommendations, we are happy to offer you a 1-week trial where you pay only if you are satisfied.

Find the perfect developer for your team at the right price

  • Individual Contributor

    $
    /year
    $30-50
    /hour
    • 1-3 years of experience
    • Mostly worked on a single stack
    • Top Individual Contributor
  • Multi-faceted Contributor

    $
    /year
    $50-80
    /hour
    • 3-7 years of experience
    • Expertise in multiple stacks
    • Worked on niche skills
    • Mentors Junior Developers
  • Leader & Diverse Contributor

    $
    /year
    $80+
    /hour
    • 7-10+ years of experience
    • Worked across stacks, products
    • Multiple niche skills
    • Led multiple teams in the past

How We Select the Top 1%

45.4%pass rate

Depth in past work

Flexiple Developers are reviewed on their experience and complexity of products built. Those who display depth and have worked on end-to-end projects are given an introductory call.

14.6%pass rate

Good communication and motivation

Over a call, the developer’s ability to communicate in an articulate manner is tested. A deeper understanding of the candidate’s technical experience and also motivation to freelance is achieved.

3.1%pass rate

Strong technical abilities

Over one or more F2F interviews, the developer’s involvement and performance in building complex software products are assessed. This sets the platform to delve deeper into technology-specific discussions.

1.5%pass rate

Keen problem solving and coding

Developers' mental agility and problem-solving abilities are tested through a coding test involving algorithmic as well as skill-specific problems. A mixture of live evaluation and timed coding tests is used.

1.2%pass rate

Splendid reviews in background check

The live experience of working with developers is verified by reaching out to past clients and/or employers. Inputs on various qualitative factors such as reliability, punctuality, communication and responsiveness are received.

1%pass rate

Consistent exemplary performance

Performance during each engagement is continually assessed. Our developers are expected to maintain Flexiple standards across all engagements with our customers.

Hire Freelance Software Developers within 48 Hours!

Our simple process gets you working with the right freelancer quickly and seamlessly

Don't Just Take Our Word For It!

(Y-Combinator S12 and Andreessen Horowitz-backed Company)

Quality product launched on schedule by a team of 8 engineers

"Flexiple helped us hire quality developers across technologies - Node, Rails, PHP, Python. They spent a good amount of time understanding our requirements, resulting in accurate recommendations and quick ramp up by developers. We also found them to be much more affordable than other alternatives for the same level of quality."

Narayan Vyas,

Senior Product manager, Plivo Inc

(Incubated at the European Space Agency)

Helped set up and scale tech team on demand

"Flexiple has exceeded our expectations with their focus on customer satisfaction! The freelancers are brilliant at what they do and have made an immense impact. Highly recommended :)"

Henning Grimm,

Founder, Aquaplot

(Acquired by Unicorn, Hike Messenger)

Saved 30% costs with 2 software products delivered

“Overall Flexiple brought in high-level of transparency with extremely quick turnarounds in the hiring process at a significantly lower cost than any alternate options we had considered.”

Kislay Shashwat,

VP Finance, CREO

('17 NYU Graduates)

Found a perfect new member for its globally distributed team

"Working with Flexiple has provided us with partners who are providing us with the required technical support for our growth and success!"

Esther Hersh,

Co-founder, Peblio Inc

(Y-Combinator S18)

Hired the first remote engineer to work directly with the CTO

"It has been great working with Flexiple for hiring highly talented and hardworking folks on contract. We were looking for a suitable developer on the back-end and we got to know Ankur through Flexiple. We are very happy with the commitment and skills he brings to the job and we will be working with Flexiple going forward as well after this positive experience. I recommend them highly for any freelancing talent you are looking to hire!"

Neil Shah,

Chief of Staff, Prodigal Tech

(#1 Lead Routing App for Salesforce)

Helped scale the product with a team of engineers

"Flexiple has been instrumental in helping us grow at a fast pace. Their vetting process for engineers is top notch and they were able to connect us with quality talent quickly. The team put great emphasis in understanding our requirements and getting to know us which ensured that we were matched with folks who were a great fit not only technically but also culturally."

Tanu V,

Founder, Power Router

(Acquired by Reliance for $100 million)

Delivered 2 high quality products forming a long partnership

"The engagement with Flexiple and their community members has helped us get work done in a timely manner and helped us go above and beyond."

Swapan R,

Co-founder, Haptik

(Acquired by PayU for $70 million)

Built their first remote tech team of a frontend and backend engineer

"Highly responsive team with prompt support and willingness to go the extra mile. Powered by technically brilliant personnel on board, we have happy results – all this at an affordable price!"

Sajith N,

Product Manager, Wibmo Inc
  • How to Hire a Great Freelance Software Developer?


  • Software Development is the creation of software or applications using computer technologies. It involves the processes of designing, programming, testing and debugging the software. It is a collection of instructions that tells the computer what to do.

    If you’re looking for a freelance software developer, this guide will come in handy. We’ve included everything you need to know about hiring a freelance software developer.

    We have broken the sections into the following parts:
    1. Let's introduce Software Development to you.
    2. Why is Software Development widespread?
    3. What are the tools used by Software developers?
    4. Writing the Job Description to hire a freelance software developer
    5. Interview Questions for hiring a freelance software Developer
    - Basic Questions
    - Advanced Questions
    - Data Structures/Algo Questions




    1. Let's introduce Software Development to you

    • The world's first piece of software was developed by computer scientist Tom Kilburn in 1948 at the University of Manchester in England. It was programmed to perform mathematical calculations using machine code instructions.

    • Fortran, one of the very first higher-level programming languages, was originally published in 1957 for scientific and engineering calculations.

    • The development of applications in today's industry uses the Software Development Life Cycle process to design, develop, test and maintain software.

    • Old programing languages like C,C++ are still in use and younger programming languages like Java, Python have been used to make number applications worldwide.

    • 2. Why is Software Development widespread?

      • Over the years software development has become important for a company to grow its business and reach a wider customer base.
      • With technological advancement, software applications have enhanced human lives in many fields. For instance software as a service is in demand - companies can host their applications over the internet without needing users to download an app. Big companies such as Netflix , Slack and Spotify all work on the software as a service model.

      3. What are the tools used by Software developers?

      The following are some of the tools used by Software developers at various stages of development:

      1. Atom
      It is an open-source all-around text editor which comes with an autocomplete attribute that makes writing code easier and quicker for any developer.

      2. GitHub
      GitHub is the most widely used software development platform. It is a web-based Git repository that acts as a Google Drive where developers review code, manage projects and build software.

      3. Buddy
      Buddy is a web-based software development tool to deploy, test, and develop applications. It integrates with WordPress, Google, and AWS, among other platforms.

      4. Jira
      It is a project management tool that allows developers to plan, track and release the software. It helps developers to encompass all phases of the software deployment.

      5. Apache NetBeans
      It is a free open-source IDE written in Java that helps developers to develop world-class desktop, mobile, and web applications. It is a cross-platform that works on Windows, macOS, Linux, etc.


      4. Writing the Job Description to hire a freelance software developer

      Below are some key points that we at Flexiple have learned through trial and error - a process of filtering through over 15,000 developers.

      • Years of software development experience: Be specific about the technology you’re looking for and the number of years of experience needed. A proxy to years of experience can be the number of production-level apps worked on.

      • Type of products built in the past: Based on the type of product you are trying to build - social network, SAAS product, etc. - you can prioritize certain developers over others.

      • Exposure to specific industries: Developers who have built products in certain industries will already know key aspects of laying the foundation for a great product and will be able to predict possible problems.

      • Experience working remotely: A developer with past remote work experience is an added advantage as they would have first-hand experience of everything - right from how contracts work to streamlined communication, as well as timelines and deliverables.

      • Strong communication: An essential thing to look at when hiring a freelancer is excellent communication skills. Since all the interaction happens online, a freelancer should be able to effectively communicate to ensure a streamlined execution of all work.

      • You can check out a more detailed job description for software architects here.


        5. Interview Questions for hiring a freelance software developer

        Now that you have made a quality JD, it can still be tricky to evaluate the skills of your applicants. To help you with that, we have created a pool of questions that a good software developer should be comfortable with. You can check out some interview questions related to software here.

        It is important to note that the ability to answer these questions doesn't imply that you have a top quality candidate. But it definitely is a big step in that direction.

        To help you navigate through these questions, we’ve categorized the interview questions in 3 parts:

        A. Basic concepts: Includes all basic concepts used across languages.This will give you an understanding of how strong their programming foundation is.

        B. Advanced concepts: Includes all concepts that someone with higher expertise should know.

        C. DS/Algorithm questions: To test the logical capability of the candidate.


        A. Basic concepts


  • While installing npm modules what is the -g and –save-dev flag for?

    npm stands for “node package manager”. It is one of the most popular package managers with more than 11 million developers using it worldwide. It is an online repository of Javascript packages and it is also a command-line interface to work with these packages.

    -g Flag

    While installing npm modules using “npm install”, some of them are installed with a “-g” flag. This stands for global. Generally, an npm module is saved in your local project folder or repository, but in certain cases when we want to save it globally the “-g” flag is used.

    One such case is when the module offers some command-line tools. Saving it globally saves its binaries in the path environment variable of the system. This enables you to use the module in your command line.

    Example: Installing the package “Nodemon”. Nodemon is a package popularly used while developing Node.js applications, which helps in creating a live server. Traditionally when a node application is running and we want to incorporate changes in the app, we save the changes, stop the app from running and then re-run it. This becomes quite a tedious process especially during the initial phases of rapid development. Nodemon runs a live server which automatically listens for changes and when any change is saved it restarts the application.

    If we were to run “npm install nodemon” and then try to run “nodemon node app.js”, we get the following error.

    nodemon : The term 'nodemon' is not recognized as the name of a cmdlet, function, script file, or operable program. Check the 
    spelling of the name, or if a path was included, verify that the path is correct and try again.
    At line:1 char:1
    + nodemon node app.js
    + ~~~~~~~
        + CategoryInfo          : ObjectNotFound: (nodemon:String) [], CommandNotFoundException
        + FullyQualifiedErrorId : CommandNotFoundException
    


    So, if we instead run “npm install nodemon -g”, and then try to run “nodemon node app.js”

    [nodemon] 2.0.5
    [nodemon] to restart at any time, enter `rs`
    [nodemon] watching path(s): *.*
    [nodemon] watching extensions: js,mjs,json
    [nodemon] starting `node node app.js`
    server is up
    [nodemon] clean exit - waiting for changes before restart
    


    This will start the live server for app.js file.

    --save-dev Flag

    By default, npm packages which are installed are saved in node_modules as project dependencies. When someone is trying to clone or recreate your project, they would have to download your project’s dependencies. To do this “npm install” is run and all the dependencies which are listed in the package.json are installed.

    But not all packages are required for the functioning of the project. Many packages such as those which help with testing aren’t required for its functioning. In such cases, we use –save-dev flag while installing these packages, as this flag adds the package to the project’s development dependencies. So, when someone runs “npm install” to download all the dependencies, the development dependencies don’t get installed.

    Example: Installing the “Jest” package. Jest is a Javascript testing framework developed by Facebook, it works with Babel, Typescript, Vue, React, Node and Angular. It helps in creating test suites and automated test cases, which help in product development. If I were to run “npm install jest”, then package.json would look like this:

      "dependencies": {
        "jest": "^26.5.3"
      },
      "devDependencies": {}
    


    If we were to run it with the --save-dev flag, like this “npm install jest --save-dev”, then package.json would look like this:

     "dependencies": {},
      "devDependencies": {
        "jest": "^26.5.3"
      }
    
  • What is the popular open standard file format (like XML) used with javascript and node.js? And what are the popular commands to convert string to that and vice versa?

    It is JSON which stands for Javascript Object Notation. It is a lightweight data interchange format. It is easy for humans to read. Even though it has Javascript in its full form, it is language independent.

    It’s built on 2 structures:
    • Collection of key-value pairs. This is called an object, dictionary, hashmap, associative array, in different languages
    • Ordered list of values, This is called an array, list, vector, in different languages
    These are universal data structures which is important for a file format which is language independent.

    Example of JSON:

    {
      "flexiple": {
          "top": "1%",
          "location": "remote"
      },
      "blog": {
        "topic": "engineering",
        "title": "What are stable coins and how do they work?"
      }
    }
    


    This in XML would look like this:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <root>
       <blog>
          <title>What are stable coins and how do they work?</title>
          <topic>engineering</topic>
       </blog>
       <flexiple>
          <location>"remote"</location>
          <top>1%</top>
       </flexiple>
    </root>
    


    Valid JSON

    Few of the rules to remember while handling JSON are that:

    • Empty objects and arrays are okay
    • Strings can contain any unicode character, this includes object properties
    • null is a valid JSON value on its own
    • All object properties should always be double quoted
    • Object property values must be one of the following: String, Number, Boolean, Object, Array, null
    • Number values must be in decimal format, no octal or hex representations
    • Trailing commas on arrays are not allowed


    • These are all examples of valid JSON: -

      {"name":"John Doe","age":32,"title":"Vice President of JavaScript"}
      
      ["one", "two", "three"]
      
      // nesting valid values is okay
      {"names": ["John Doe", "Jane Doe"] }
      
      [ { "name": "John Doe"}, {"name": "Jane Doe"} ]
      
      {} // empty hash
      
      [] // empty list
      
      null
      
      { "key": "\uFDD0" } // unicode escape codes
      


      These are all examples of bad JSON formatting:-

      { name: "John Doe", 'age': 32 } // name and age should be in double quotes
      
      [32, 64, 128, 0xFFF] // hex numbers are not allowed
      
      { "name": "John Doe", "age": undefined } // undefined is an invalid value
      
      // functions and dates are not allowed
      { "name": "John Doe",
        "birthday": new Date('Fri, 26 Jan 2019 07:13:10 GMT'),
        "getName": function() {
            return this.name;
        }
      }
      


      Javascript provides 2 methods to encode data structures to JSON and to convert JSON to objects or arrays. These methods are JSON.stringify() and JSON.parse().

      JSON.stringify()

      It takes a Javascript object or array as input and returns a serialised string form of it.

      const obj = {
          name: "Flexiple",
          city: "Bengaluru"
      }
      
      const jsonStr = JSON.stringify(obj)
      console.log(jsonStr)
      // output is {"name":"Flexiple","city":"Bengaluru"}
      


      JSON.stringify() can take 3 arguments in total, the first one being the data structure. The second argument, called the replacer parameter, can either be a function or an array. It is used to manipulate the properties (keys and values) in JSON.

      let cost = {
          candy: 5,
          bread: 20,
          cheese: 100,
          milk: 15
      }
      
      let func = (key, value) => {
          if (value < 15) {
              return undefined
          }
          return value
      }
      
      let arr = ['candy', 'bread']
      
      let jsonStrWithFunc = JSON.stringify(cost, func)
      console.log(jsonStrWithFunc)
      // Output is {"bread":20,"cheese":100,"milk":15}
      
      let jsonStrWithArr = JSON.stringify(cost, arr)
      console.log(jsonStrWithArr)
      // Output is {"candy":5,"bread":20}
      


      The third argument, called the space parameter, takes in either a number or a string. It is used to control the spacing of the final string by deciding the size of indentation.

      let cost = {
          candy: 5,
          bread: 20,
          cheese: 100,
          milk: 15
      }
      
      let jsonStrWithNum = JSON.stringify(cost, null, 2)
      console.log(jsonStrWithNum)
      // Output is 
      // {
      //   "candy": 5,
      //   "bread": 20,
      //   "cheese": 100,
      //   "milk": 15
      // }
      
      let jsonStrWithStr = JSON.stringify(cost, null, 'xx')
      console.log(jsonStrWithStr)
      // Output is 
      // {
      //     xx"candy": 5,
      //     xx"bread": 20,
      //     xx"cheese": 100,
      //     xx"milk": 15
      // }
      


      JSON.stringify() is also popularly used for debugging, as trying to see a JSON object using console.log() isn’t always successful

      const obj = {
          "nest1": {
              "ex": "ex",
              "nest2": {
                  "nest3": {
                      "ex": "ex",
                  }
              }
          }
      }
        
      console.log(obj)
      // Output is { nest1: { ex: 'ex', nest2: { nest3: [Object] } } }
      


      As we can see that after a certain level of nesting the log just displays ‘[Object]’. Therefore, JSON.stringify() can be used to make debugging easier.

      const obj = {
          "nest1": {
              "ex": "ex",
              "nest2": {
                  "nest3": {
                      "ex": "ex",
                  }
              }
          }
      }
        
      console.log(JSON.stringify(obj,null,2))
      // Output is 
      // {
      //     "nest1": {
      //       "ex": "ex",
      //       "nest2": {
      //         "nest3": {
      //           "ex": "ex"
      //         }
      //       }
      //     }
      // }
      


      JSON.parse()

      It takes a JSON string and converts it into its respective data structure

       const jsonStr = '{"name":"Flexiple","city":"Bengaluru"}'
      const obj = JSON.parse(jsonStr)
      
      console.log(obj)
      // output is { name: 'Flexiple', city: 'Bengaluru' }
      


      Calling JSON.parse() on invalid JSON string will throw a SyntaxError.

      Cloning Objects in Javascript

      These 2 functions of JSON can be used together to clone javascript objects.

      const obj = {
          "prop1": {
              "ex": "ex",
              "prop2": {
                  "ex": "ex"
              }
          }
      }
      
      const objCopy = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(obj))
        
      console.log(objCopy)
      // Output is { prop1: { ex: 'ex', prop2: { ex: 'ex' } } }
      


      But this is not recommended, because of multiple reasons:
      • It is slower than alternatives
      • This works properly only for valid JSON, but not all javascript objects fall in that category
      A better alternative for deep cloning objects would be to either use an npm library called ‘lodash’ or write a custom recursive function to do the same. The spread operator can be used for shallow cloning of objects.


      B. Advanced concepts


  • What is a lint? Have you ever worked with one before, if yes which one?

    Linting is the automatic checking of source code for programmatic and stylistic errors. Programmatic errors are the errors such as compilation and run time errors. Each company decides to write their code in a certain style and format, this is done for easy maintenance and to provide further structure to the code.

    Stylistic errors are those which might compile without an issue but it does not meet the standards set by the company. Apart from stylistic checks, it is able to identify certain types of bugs like those related to variable scope, undeclared variables, global variables and so on.

    Linting is done using a lint tool or linter, which is basically a static code analyzer. It is important as it reduces errors and increases the standard of the code. It can greatly benefit early stages of development and can save time during code reviews and code maintenance.

    ESLint

    ESLint is one the most popular lints available for Javascript. Let us go into the basics of using ESLint. This is going to the most basic version of ESLint, remember you can install it with different code style plugins as per your choice.
    • After setting up your project (that is running ‘npm init’), run ‘npm install eslint --save-dev’.
    • After that we run ‘npx eslint --init’ this is used to generate the ‘.eslintrc.json’ file which is the config file for eslint.
    • When we are generating a the config file, it asks a bunch of questions to generate it, these are what I’ve chosen:
     How would you like to use ESLint? · style
     What type of modules does your project use? · commonjs
     Which framework does your project use? · none
     Does your project use TypeScript? · No / Yes
     Where does your code run? · node
     How would you like to define a style for your project? · guide
     Which style guide do you want to follow? · standard
     What format do you want your config file to be in? · JSON 
    


    • It might have some peer dependencies that it wants you to install - install them too.
    • Now we come to using the linter. We run ‘npx eslint app.js’ (here app.js is the source js file).
    My app.js file looks like this:

    const obj = {
        "prop1": {
            "ex": "ex",
            "prop2": {
                "ex": "ex"
            }
        }
    }
    
    const objCopy = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(obj))
      
    console.log(objCopy)
    


    And the output after running ‘npx eslint app.js’ is:

    2:1   error  Expected indentation of 2 spaces but found 4   indent
       2:5   error  Strings must use singlequote                   quotes
       2:5   error  Unnecessarily quoted property 'prop1' found    quote-props
       3:1   error  Expected indentation of 4 spaces but found 8   indent
       3:9   error  Unnecessarily quoted property 'ex' found       quote-props
       3:9   error  Strings must use singlequote                   quotes
       3:15  error  Strings must use singlequote                   quotes
       4:1   error  Expected indentation of 4 spaces but found 8   indent
       4:9   error  Strings must use singlequote                   quotes
       4:9   error  Unnecessarily quoted property 'prop2' found    quote-props
       5:1   error  Expected indentation of 6 spaces but found 12  indent
       5:13  error  Strings must use singlequote                   quotes
       5:13  error  Unnecessarily quoted property 'ex' found       quote-props
       5:19  error  Strings must use singlequote                   quotes
       6:1   error  Expected indentation of 4 spaces but found 8   indent
       7:1   error  Expected indentation of 2 spaces but found 4   indent
      11:1   error  Trailing spaces not allowed                    no-trailing-spaces
      12:21  error  Newline required at end of file but not found  eol-last
    
     18 problems (18 errors, 0 warnings)
      18 errors and 0 warnings potentially fixable with the `--fix` option.
    


    Some of the errors can be fixed using the ‘--fix’ flag, so run ‘npx eslint app.js --fix’. This is how my app.js changed after that:

    const obj = {
      prop1: {
        ex: 'ex',
        prop2: {
          ex: 'ex'
        }
      }
    }
    
    const objCopy = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(obj))
    
    console.log(objCopy)
    


    Now it does not show any errors on running ‘npx eslint app.js’.

    Similarly ESLint can be used to either check syntax, fix bugs, enforce code style and it has a lot of different options to choose from. It supports plugins and allows custom rules also. Apart from ESLint, some of the other popular lints for Javascript are JSLint and JSHint.

  • What is CORS?

    CORS stands for Cross Origin Resource Sharing. It is a mechanism that uses additional HTTP headers instructing the browser to allow applications on one origin to accept resources from another origin. A different origin means either different domain, protocol or port.

    This is required because browsers, as a security measure, do not allow cross origin HTTP requests initiated from scripts. This is the case with XMLHttpRequest (mostly used method for resource requests) and Fetch API. By default, they allow only same-origin requests.

    For example, let’s assume that the front end is hosted on https://a-domain.com and the backend on https://b-domain.com. In such a case, if the front end makes a GET request to https://b-domain.com/posts, it will receive the following error in the console:

    Cross-Origin Request Blocked: The Same Origin Policy disallows reading the remote resource at https://b-domain.com 


    To prevent this CORS is utilised. Basically, additional headers need to be provided - this is the Access-Control-Allow-Origin header. This can take 2 forms of values:
    • Access-Control-Allow-Origin : [origin] An example of this would be ‘Access-Control-Allow-Origin: https://a-domain.com. This allows requests only from the specified origin to be able to access resources provided.
    • Access-Control-Allow-Origin : * Using the wildcard character (*) means that any site can access the resources provided by your application.
    As standard practice, if cross origin requests are being made it is recommended to not use the wildcard character, and instead mention the origin. If the front end is not rendered by the server itself then CORS needs to be used for the client to be able to interact with the server.

    In Node.js, you can either directly write the headers for each request or there exists npm packages which plug into frameworks like Express.js. One such example is the ‘cors’ npm package. It is very simple to use:

    // declaring app to use express framework
    let app = express()
     
    // this is using wildcard character
    app.use(cors()) 
    
    // this is specifying origin
    app.use(cors({
      origin: 'https://a-domain.com' 
    }))
    
    // this is specifying cors for specific route
    app.get('/', cors(), (req, res) => {
        
    });
    


    In this way CORS can easily be incorporated into your backend server.
  • What are the vulnerabilities of using cookies? What about the usage of local storage?

    Cookies and local storage are primarily used for session management in web application development. What this means is that once the user is authenticated, there needs to be a way for the application to remember the user for a period of time without asking the user to login again.

    In an architecture design it is standard to keep the server stateless, but this would mean that the user information cannot be stored on the server. Therefore, the decision was taken to store it on the client. This was originally done using cookies. Cookies are basically a storage facility with the browser, which the client side javascript or the server (using headers) can interact with.

    Each item stored in cookies is called a cookie, and each cookie has an expiration time which can be manually set too. The cookie persists in the browser for that duration and is not removed by page refreshes or window being shut. When a client interacts with a server using HTTP requests, then the cookies are also sent along in headers.

    The data which is stored in a cookie is generally a token such as a JSON Web Token (JWT). JWT consists of a payload which is used to fetch information about the user. JWT tokens are signed on the server using a secret key. The routes allow only authorized users to check whether the token is present in the cookies. This is the outline of the architecture followed for session management.

    Difference between Cookie and Local Storage 

    Primarily both function in similar ways - i.e. both involve persistent storage in the browser. The differences come in slight nuances of their functioning:
    • Local storage does not have the concept of expiration time. So, the developer dealing with it needs to handle the expiration of tokens stored in it. Whereas, the expiration time for cookies can be set while storing the cookie and the browser handles the rest.
    • Local storage is not sent with every HTTP request, like a cookie is sent. This reduces load on especially those HTTP requests which are public and do not require to use the token stored.
    • The server can directly interact with cookies, whereas only the client side script can interact with local storage.
    • Local storage has a much larger storage capacity of 5mb compared to 4kb of cookie. This is primarily because cookies are meant to be read by the server, whereas local storage is meant for the client side to be able to persistently store data.

    Vulnerabilities

    Local storage

    Local storage is accessible only by client-side javascript code. This makes it particularly vulnerable to XSS attacks. XSS (Cross-Site Scripting) attacks are a type of injections in which malicious scripts are injected into otherwise trusted websites due to a vulnerability.

    This script then executes on the client’s browser and can access the local storage quite easily. XSS attacks are mainly used to steal cookies, session tokens and other information. After obtaining session tokens they can access protected routes using it. Therefore, storing authentication tokens on local storage is very risky.

    Cookies

    Cookies function similarly as they can also be accessed by client-side javascript code. They are also vulnerable to XSS attacks, but there can be a further layer of protection added to prevent this.

    If the ‘httpOnly’ flag is marked as true while setting cookies then client side javascript cannot access that cookie. This allows only the server side code to interact with it. So this protects it from XSS attacks. However, due to its property of sending a cookie on every request, it gets vulnerable to CSRF/XSRF attacks.

    CSRF/XSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) attacks are when malicious web apps can influence the interaction between a client browser and a web server that trusts the browser. Therefore, further measures need to be taken like using CSRF tokens and proper use of the Same-Site cookie attribute.


    C. Data Structure/ Algorithm

  • 1. Write a program to find whether a string or number is palindrome or not.


    import java.util.Scanner;
    public class Palindrome {
        public static void main (String[] args) {
            String original, reverse = "";
     Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in);
           int length;
            System.out.println("Enter a number or a string");
            original = in.nextLine();
            length = original.length();
            for (int i =length -1; i>;=0; i--) {
                reverse = reverse + original.charAt(i);
            }
            System.out.println("The reverse is: " +reverse);
    
            if(original.equals(reverse))
                System.out.println("The string is a palindrome");
            else
                System.out.println("The stringis not a palindrome");
    
        }
    }
    
  • 2. Given a string containing just the characters '(', ')', '{', '}', '[' and ']', determine if the input string is valid. An input string is valid if: Open brackets must be closed by the same type of brackets. Open brackets must be closed in the correct order. Note that an empty string is also considered valid.


    class ValidParenthesesF {
        func isValid(_ s: String) -> Bool {
            var stg = [Character]()
    
            for char in s {
                if char == "(" || char == "[" || char == "{" {
                    stg.append(char)
                } else if char == ")" {
                    guard stg.count != 0 && stg.removeLast() == "(" else {
                        return false
                    }
                } else if char == "]" {
                    guard stg.count != 0 && stg.removeLast() == "[" else {
                        return false
                    }
                } else if char == "}" {
                    guard stg.count != 0 && stg.removeLast() == "{" else {
                        return false
                    }
                }
            }
            return stg.isEmpty
        }
    }
    

    The above code will input 0(false). 
  • 3. What will the output of the following code be?


    var i = 10;
    var f = 5;
    var g = 3;
    if (i / f / g)
         document.write("hi");
    else
        document.write("hello");
    a) hi
    b) hello
    c) error
    d) no output

    The answer is A because the floating-point division returns a non zero value = 0.66 which evaluates
    to true and outputs ‘hi’.

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